Growing shiitake at home - preparation, planting and care
Since the development of home gardening, people have begun to domesticate many plants. In the beds and in the gardens, you can find outlandish bushes, trees and fruit crops, which only 30-50 years ago grew only in forests and swamps. Recently, you can often find home-made mushroom farms. Gardeners began to grow mushrooms, oyster mushrooms and shiitaka in ladies or on balconies.
- What mushrooms can be grown at home
- Shiitake mushrooms
- Growing substrate
- Planting, care and collection
- Useful and harmful substances
Mushroom farms have been gaining popularity in recent years. At the lowest cost, as a result, you can collect a rich harvest and sell it profitably. You can also grow mushrooms yourself at home. Observing basic rules, you can use your own grown fruits almost all year round.
For beginners, it is recommended to start with mushrooms that do not require special conditions for growth - oyster mushrooms and winter mushrooms, as well as shiitake.
At the same time, spores can be planted outside during the warm season and special hanging gardens can be built indoors. The farms have special equipment, ventilation and hoods, so the range of mushroom species is much wider.
At home, this process is best done in warm sheds or basements, although some amateurs manage to grow crops. on the windowsills... Also, in the summer, summer residents have the opportunity to grow several harvests of mushrooms in their area. This requires a small amount of materials and patience.
Shiitake is a wood-destroying mushroom. It is also called shiitaki. It is believed that it appeared 2000 years ago in Southeast Asia. Under natural conditions, this mushroom appears at the end of summer; it can be found in forests, both deciduous and coniferous. It also grows in forest edges, pastures and gardens.
structural features of the fungus:
- Externally, shiitake is a medium-sized mushroom.
- His hat is round, has the shape of a hemisphere and is no more than 14 cm in diameter.
- Its color depends on the species and can be dark brown or yellowish in color. The leg is firm, brown in color.
- When cut, the mushroom should give off a pleasant aroma.
- The inside is completely white.
Shiitake mushrooms have gained their popularity in the countries of China and Japan. It was there that their miraculous properties and unusual composition were discovered. The name consists of two parts "shii" - this is the tree on which this mushroom grows in nature, and "take" is translated from Japanese as mushroom. In eastern countries, shiitake is valued no less than ginseng root.
The composition of mushrooms includes such substances and trace elements that are useful for the human body in severe diseases, and also help fight cancer.
This property gives it a unique polysaccharide, thanks to which substances are formed that can fight this disease. Both raw mushrooms and those cooked in any way in the recipe or separately are eaten. They have a dense fleshy structure and a pleasant taste and aroma.The most valuable are those mushrooms, the caps of which outwardly resemble the shell of a turtle, that is, cracked.
For outdoor shiitake cultivation, you can use old stumps or prepare the trunks of felled trees in advance. Almost all types of this type of plant are suitable. At the same time, it is necessary to regularly view and care for young shoots, since with a lack of attention, you can lose the entire crop.
- The wood is harvested in advance, kept for a month in the open air in order to reduce the amount of moisture it contains.
- Next, you need to cut logs, the length of which should not exceed 1.5 meters.
- In each separate log, it is necessary to drill holes, the diameter of which should be no more than 2 cm, and the depth of 1.5 cm. The mycelium is placed in each and closed with a wooden cork on top.
- There should be a distance of 15-20 cm between the holes.
- Next, the logs must be tilted and covered with straw, grass or earth to maintain the required temperature.
Within six months, the development of the mycelium takes place, after which the chopped bars can be taken to the forest, where, with a normal amount of rain, after 2 years, you can harvest mushrooms. This method is time consuming and yields a relatively small harvest.
You can also use special mixtures for cultivation mushrooms. They are made by them pressed sawdust, include all the substances necessary for growth and are processed. Wherein landing is much easier to make fertilizers or feeding not necessary. In this case, the main thing is to place a container with mushrooms in a suitable place.
Also, when using the mixture, the yield increases significantly and the ripening rate increases.
You can prepare a similar substrate yourself:
- To do this, you need to take freshly cut branches of deciduous trees and clean them of foliage. Grind the branches in a grinder or a special installation. You can also take sawdust from the woodworking industry.
- Pack them in plastic bags that can withstand heat treatment.
- Sawdust with water in the ratio of 1 kg of chips to 160 ml of water. After five minutes, the moisture must be removed, and all the material must be squeezed out. After that, corks are made of cotton wool, and the neck of the bag is tied around it. This is done so that small amounts of air enter the container. In this form, the packages with sawdust are left for a day.
- After the specified time has elapsed, the substrate must be heat treated. To do this, it can be placed in a steam room, where the temperature must be maintained within 80 degrees. You can also hold the sawdust bags over steam for 6-8 hours.
For the convenience of planting, the substrate can be poured into boxes after pretreating them with special drugs for disinfection. The tools with which the mycelium will be introduced into the sawdust is also recommended to be cleaned.
For sowing shiitake, you must first knead the planting material right in the bag. Further, a package with an already cooled substrate is opened, mycelium is introduced into it with the help of a spoon, which must be tamped from above. After that, the bag is tied, the stopper should be in the same place. 1 spoon of mycelium is added to 2.5 liters of substrate.
In order for the mushrooms to spread throughout the bag, they must be placed in a dark and warm place, where the ambient temperature is about 20 degrees Celsius.
Withstand the crops for about 60 days. During this period, the spores will spread completely and ripen for germination. After the expiration of the term, the blocks with crops can be freed from polyethylene and taken out into the open air if the process is carried out in the summer. They need to be washed with cold water and installed in a shaded area.
For a good development of mushrooms and a bountiful harvest, it is recommended daily to water plantings. This process is especially important when the mushrooms begin to sprout and gain weight. Harvest with a sharp knife. First of all, the caps are removed, after which you can cut off the lower part of the mushroom.
Since shiitake grows and ripens in waves, after harvesting, the block with the substrate must be soaked in cold water to stimulate the growth of the second wave. Soak it for a week to restore its former volume and moisture. After that, the blocks are put in their original place and the whole process is repeated.
In this way, you can harvest up to 6 crops. After that, the substrate will begin to crumble and will no longer be suitable for growing mushrooms. It can be used like fertilizer.
- Shiitake mushrooms are widely used in cooking. There are only 34 kcal per 100 grams of this product. Therefore, it can be attributed to dietary nutrition. Mushrooms have a slightly tangy pleasant taste, they resemble meat in structure. They are found in many recipes such as soups, omelets, sandwiches, salads, and so on. They can be eaten raw, and the mushrooms will have their own unique taste. When cooking, some of the nuances are lost, leaving a pleasant pungency and aroma.
- Also mushrooms are used for medicinal purposes. Due to their unique composition, they are often used in the treatment of cancer. Although research in this area is still underway, the positive impact has been noted by many physicians. It is also recommended to use them for other serious illnesses.
- Shiitake mushrooms are used in the cosmetic industry. On their basis, various creams, masks and lotions are prepared, which are aimed at increasing the elasticity and firmness of the skin. Also, these drugs nourish the skin, improve complexion, restore water balance, and rejuvenate cells.
No harmful properties of these mushrooms have been identified. Doctors do not recommend using them during pregnancy and those people who suffer from bronchial asthma. Otherwise, they have a beneficial effect.
Shiitake mushrooms have been studied by world laboratories and the results have surpassed all expectations. This product contains a large amount of substances and trace elements that not only have a beneficial effect on the body, but can also cure some complex diseases.
In China, he is considered the emperor of all mushrooms.
It helps in the treatment of viral diseases, lowers blood cholesterol and increases blood circulation. Due to the high content of amino acids, vitamins and hormones, it helps to reduce cancerous tumors. These mushrooms can be used for diabetes, stomach diseases, allergies and other diseases. At the same time, the state of health will improve significantly.
Grow shiitake mushrooms at home will not be difficult. The necessary materials can be purchased in specialized stores, and the whole process is so simple that even a novice gardener can easily cope. As a result, you can get environmentally friendly, healthy and tasty products.
More information can be found in the video.